3 weeks 2 days ago
In the United States, cases of mpox (formerly monkeypox) have declined since peaking in August 2022, but the outbreak is not over. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continues to receive reports of cases that reflect ongoing community transmission in the United States and internationally. This week, CDC and local partners are investigating a cluster of mpox cases in the Chicago area. From April 17 to May 5, 2023, a total of 12 confirmed and one probable case of mpox were reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health. All cases were among symptomatic men. None of the patients have been hospitalized. Nine (69%) of 13 cases were among men who had received 2 JYNNEOS vaccine doses. Confirmed cases were in 9 (69%) non-Hispanic White men, 2 (15%) non-Hispanic Black men, and 2 (15%) Asian men. The median age was 34 years (range 24-46 years). Travel history was available for 9 cases; 4 recently traveled (New York City, New Orleans, and Mexico).
2 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to inform clinicians and public health departments in the United States about two confirmed outbreaks of Marburg virus disease (MVD)-one in Equatorial Guinea and one in Tanzania. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that these two outbreaks are related; most experts agree that these represent two independent animal-to-human spillover events. To date, no confirmed cases of MVD related to these outbreaks have been reported in the United States or other countries outside Equatorial Guinea and Tanzania. This Health Advisory provides information about these outbreaks to increase awareness of the risk of imported cases in the United States. It also summarizes CDC's recommendations for case identification, testing, and clinical laboratory biosafety considerations in the United States.
3 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health officials about a confirmed measles case at a large gathering. On February 24, 2023, the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) identified a confirmed case of measles in an unvaccinated individual with a history of recent international travel. While infectious, the individual attended a large religious gathering on February 17-18, 2023, at Asbury University in Wilmore, Kentucky. An estimated 20,000 people attended the gathering from Kentucky, other U.S. states, and other countries during February 17-18, and an undetermined number of these people may have been exposed. This Health Advisory also highlights other recent large global measles outbreaks and associated U.S. importations, and the importance of early recognition, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment. CDC recommends that clinicians be on alert for cases of measles that meet the case definition.
3 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health authorities of an increase in the number of cases of chikungunya reported in Paraguay. Most cases have been reported in the capital district of Asunción and the neighboring Central department. As of February 24, 2023, the Ministry of Health in Paraguay reported a total of 71,478 suspect chikungunya cases in Paraguay, with 29,362 of those being probable or confirmed cases since the outbreak began in October 2022 . Further spread of the outbreak in Paraguay and to surrounding countries is possible.
This Health Advisory provides information on the current status of the chikungunya outbreak in Paraguay and advises on evaluating and testing travelers returning from Paraguay with signs and symptoms consistent with chikungunya virus infection. It also highlights those at increased risk for severe disease and prevention measures to mitigate additional spread of the virus and potential importation into unaffected areas, including the United States.
3 months 1 week ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been monitoring an increase in extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Shigella infections (shigellosis) reported through national surveillance systems . In 2022, about 5% of Shigella infections reported to CDC were caused by XDR strains, compared with 0% in 2015. Clinicians treating patients infected with XDR strains have limited antimicrobial treatment options. Shigella bacteria are easily transmissible. XDR Shigella strains can spread antimicrobial resistance genes to other enteric bacteria. Given these potentially serious public health concerns, CDC asks healthcare professionals to be vigilant about suspecting and reporting cases of XDR Shigella infection to their local or state health department and educating patients and communities at increased risk about prevention and transmission.
Shigellosis is an acute enteric infection that is an important cause of domestically acquired and travel-associated bacterial diarrhea in the United States. Shigellosis usually causes inflammatory diarrhea that can be bloody and may also lead to fever, abdominal cramping, and tenesmus. Infections are generally self-limiting; however, antimicrobial treatment may be indicated to prevent complications or shorten the duration of illness . CDC defines XDR Shigella bacteria as strains that are resistant to all commonly recommended empiric and alternative antibiotics - azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and ampicillin. Currently, there are no data from clinical studies of treatment of XDR Shigella to inform recommendations for the optimal antimicrobial treatment of these infections. As such, CDC does not have recommendations for optimal antimicrobial treatment of XDR Shigella infections.
4 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory about infections with an extensively drug-resistant strain of Verona Integron-mediated Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) and Guiana-Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamase (GES)-producing carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-GES-CRPA) in 12 states. Most patients reported using artificial tears. Patients reported more than 10 different brands of artificial tears, and some patients used multiple brands. The majority of patients who used artificial tears reported using EzriCare Artificial Tears, a preservative-free, over-the-counter product packaged in multidose bottles. CDC laboratory testing identified the presence of the outbreak strain in opened EzriCare bottles with different lot numbers collected from two states. Patients and healthcare providers should immediately discontinue using EzriCare artificial tears pending additional guidance from CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
5 months 2 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to notify clinicians and public health authorities of a recent increase in pediatric invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections. In November 2022, CDC was notified of a possible increase in iGAS infections among children at a hospital in Colorado. Potential increases in pediatric iGAS cases in other states were subsequently noted by contributors to the Infectious Diseases Society of America's provider-based Emerging Infections Network and by certain jurisdictions participating in CDC's Active Bacterial Core Surveillance System (ABCs). This increased number of pediatric iGAS cases in some jurisdictions has occurred in the setting of increased circulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2, and other respiratory viruses. While the overall number of cases has remained relatively low and iGAS infections remain rare in children, CDC is investigating these reports.
5 months 2 weeks ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update to supplement the CDC HAN Health Advisories issued on April 25, 2022 and May 24, 2022 to emphasize to healthcare providers, public health departments, and the public that the majority of Omicron sublineages circulating in the United States have reduced susceptibility to the monoclonal antibody, bebtelovimab and the monoclonal antibody combination, cilgavimab and tixagevimab (EvusheldTM).
Antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19, ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid™), remdesivir (Veklury®), and molnupiravir (Lagevrio™), retain activity against currently circulating Omicron sublineages. These medications can prevent severe disease, hospitalization, and death and are widely available but have been underused.
This HAN Health Update provides health care professionals, public health officials, and the public with guidance on improving use of therapeutics for treatment of COVID-19 and strategies to prevent serious outcomes of COVID-19.
5 months 3 weeks ago
Seasonal influenza activity is high across the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that in the 2022-2023 season to date, there have been at least 13 million illnesses, 120,000 hospitalizations, and 7,300 deaths from influenza (Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report | CDC). While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not indicated shortages of oseltamivir (generic or Tamiflu) in any of its forms (capsules, oral suspension), CDC has received numerous anecdotal reports of availability issues for generic oseltamivir in some locations . This may continue to occur in some communities as influenza activity continues.
This Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory provides clinicians and public health officials with guidance for prioritizing oseltamivir for treatment and information on other influenza antivirals that are recommended for treating influenza in areas where oseltamivir is temporarily unavailable.
6 months 2 weeks ago
Monkeypox cases have declined since mid-August 2022 in the United States; however, new cases-including clinically severe cases-continue to occur. While there are currently no treatments specifically approved for monkeypox, therapeutics developed for patients with smallpox have been deployed during the current outbreak. This Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update provides clinicians and public health officials with new information about managing monkeypox in patients requiring therapeutics.
7 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update as a follow-up to a HAN Health Advisory (Outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Sudan ebolavirus) in Central Uganda) issued on October 6, 2022. This Health Update serves to inform public health departments, public health laboratories, and clinicians in the United States about the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Uganda caused by Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus). No suspect or confirmed EVD cases related to this outbreak have been reported in the United States (U.S.) or other countries outside of Uganda to date. However, as a precaution because of increasing cases in Uganda, CDC is communicating with public health departments, public health laboratories, and healthcare workers in the United States to provide an update and raise awareness of this outbreak and the potential for importation of cases.
7 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory about early, elevated respiratory disease incidence caused by multiple viruses occurring especially among children and placing strain on healthcare systems. Co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2, and others could place stress on healthcare systems this fall and winter. This early increase in disease incidence highlights the importance of optimizing respiratory virus prevention and treatment measures, including prompt vaccination and antiviral treatment, as outlined below.
7 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to emphasize the importance of following existing recommendations for maintaining and monitoring dental waterlines. Multiple outbreaks of nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) infections have occurred in children who received pulpotomies in pediatric dental clinics where the dental treatment water contained high levels of bacteria. CDC provides guidelines on infection control in dental settings which contain recommendations to treat dental unit waterlines and monitor water quality. Dental providers should be familiar with these recommendations on how to properly maintain and monitor their dental equipment to ensure that dental treatment water is safe for patient care.
8 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory about a recently confirmed outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Uganda caused by Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus) to summarize CDC's recommendations for U.S. public health departments and clinicians, case identification and testing, and clinical laboratory biosafety considerations. No suspected, probable, or confirmed EVD cases related to this outbreak have yet been reported in the United States. However, as a precaution and to remind clinicians about best practices, CDC is communicating with public health departments, public health laboratories, and healthcare workers in the United States to raise awareness of this outbreak.
8 months ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is reminding healthcare professionals seeing patients from areas affected by Hurricanes Fiona or Ian to maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Other people who may have been exposed to the same CO source may need to be identified and evaluated.
The signs and symptoms of CO exposure are variable and nonspecific. A tension-type headache is the most common symptom of mild CO poisoning. Other common symptoms of CO poisoning are dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, upset stomach, vomiting, chest pain, and altered mental status (confusion).
Clinical manifestations of severe CO poisoning include cardiovascular and neurological effects: tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, dysrhythmias, myocardial ischemia or infarction, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, irritability, impaired memory, cognitive and sensory disturbances, ataxia, altered or loss of consciousness, seizures, coma, and death, although any organ system might be involved.
CO poisoning can be fatal for anyone. Children, pregnant people, babies and infants, persons with sickle cell disease, older adults, and persons with chronic illness (e.g., heart or lung disease) are at particularly high risk.
8 months 1 week ago
The purpose of this Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory is to inform healthcare providers that
1. Severe manifestations of monkeypox have been observed in the United States in the current outbreak.
2. People who are immunocompromised due to HIV or other conditions are at higher risk for severe manifestations of monkeypox than people who are immunocompetent.
3. Because people with HIV-associated immunocompromise are at risk for severe manifestations of monkeypox, the HIV status of all sexually active adults and adolescents with suspected or confirmed monkeypox should be determined.
4. There are diagnostic and clinical management strategies that may help address severe manifestations of monkeypox.
8 months 3 weeks ago
Healthcare providers and hospitals in several regions of the United States notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during August 2022 about increases in pediatric hospitalizations in patients with severe respiratory illness who also tested positive for rhinovirus (RV) and/or enterovirus (EV). RVs and EVs can have clinically similar presentations and are indistinguishable from one another on multiplex assays often used in clinical settings. Upon further typing, some specimens have been positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). Concurrently, pediatric acute respiratory illness sentinel surveillance sites are reporting a higher proportion of EV-D68 positivity in children who are RV/EV positive compared to previous years. Although it primarily causes acute respiratory illness, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a rare but serious neurologic complication involving limb weakness.
9 months 1 week ago
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to provide updates on recent variant1 influenza virus infections and summarize CDC's recommendations for identification, treatment, and prevention of variant influenza virus infection for the summer and fall of 2022.
10 months 1 week ago
As of July 29, 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health partners are reporting 5,189 cases of Monkeypox virus infections in the United States across 47 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. CDC is also reporting multiple outbreaks of monkeypox have also been reported globally in 72 countries that do not normally report monkeypox activity. On Friday, July 22, CDC reported the first two cases of monkeypox in children in the United States during the current outbreak.
This Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update serves to alert clinicians to clinical considerations for preventing, diagnosing, and managing monkeypox in people with HIV, children, adolescents, and people who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
10 months 1 week ago
As of July 28, 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local public health partners are reporting 4,907 cases of monkeypox in the United States across 46 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. CDC is also tracking multiple clusters of monkeypox that have been reported globally, including in 71 countries that normally do not report monkeypox.
This Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Update serves to alert clinicians on commercial testing capability, collecting clinical specimens for testing, and using TPOXX® (tecovirimat) for treating monkeypox.
1 hour 56 minutes ago
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