Wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in preK-12 schools shows school, community, and citywide infections

1 week 5 days ago
Wastewater surveillance is a passive and efficient way to monitor the spread of infectious diseases in large populations and high transmission areas such as preK-12 schools. Infections caused by respiratory viruses in school-aged children are likely underreported, particularly because many children may be asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. Wastewater monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 has been studied extensively and primarily by sampling at centralized wastewater treatment plants, and there are limited...
Madeline Wolken

Expanding Medicaid to Reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in Houston, Texas: Insights From a Modeling Study

1 month 4 weeks ago
CONTEXT: Medicaid expansion has been nationally shown to improve engagement in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention continua, which are vital steps to stopping the HIV epidemic. New HIV infections in the United States are disproportionately concentrated among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Houston, TX, is the most populous city in the Southern United States with a racially/ethnically diverse population that is located in 1 of 11 US states that have not...
Francis Lee

"Everything…Fell Apart Once COVID-19 Hit"-Leveraging the COVID-19 Response to Strengthen Public Health Activities toward Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Qualitative Study

2 months 1 week ago
COVID-19 caused widespread disruption of activities for Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE). In this study we assessed public health perspectives on leveraging the COVID-19 response to advance the goals of EHE. We conducted a qualitative study with 33 public health partners in the Midwestern and Southern United States from October 2020 to February 2022. Participants were asked how the strategies developed for COVID-19 could be applied to the HIV epidemic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and...
Samantha A Devlin

Clinical Outcomes Associated with Co-infection of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales and other Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

2 months 2 weeks ago
CONCLUSION: The results show that CRPA and CRE co-infections have synergistic effects on clinical outcomes. Further investigation is necessary to understand the mechanism. Screening high risk patients for concomitant antimicrobial-resistant infections may have a significant clinical impact, including effective therapies, antibiotic stewardship, and infection control policies.
Bekana K Tadese

Impact of molecular sequence data completeness on HIV cluster detection and a network science approach to enhance detection

2 months 3 weeks ago
Detection of viral transmission clusters using molecular epidemiology is critical to the response pillar of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative. Here, we studied whether inference with an incomplete dataset would influence the accuracy of the reconstructed molecular transmission network. We analyzed viral sequence data available from ~ 13,000 individuals with diagnosed HIV (2012-2019) from Houston Health Department surveillance data with 53% completeness (n = 6852 individuals with sequences)....
Sepideh Mazrouee

Six-Month Outcomes of Infants Born to People With SARS-CoV-2 in Pregnancy

3 months ago
CONCLUSIONS: Results are reassuring, with low incidences of most health outcomes examined. Incidence of infant SARS-CoV-2, breastmilk feeding initiation, and all-cause mortality differed by timing of maternal infection. Strategies to prevent infections and support pregnant people with coronavirus disease 2019 may improve infant outcomes.
Lucas Gosdin

Sexual Behaviors and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a Heterosexually Active Adult Population at Increased Risk for HIV Infection

3 months 2 weeks ago
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually acquired infection in the US. Vaccination is effective against infection with high-risk HPV strains, yet HPV vaccine coverage is lower in the US than the national target. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sexual behaviors and HPV vaccination in a heterosexually active population at increased risk for HIV infection. Data from 380 participants aged 18-45 years obtained from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system...
Trisha L Amboree

Welder's Anthrax: A Tale of 2 Cases

3 months 3 weeks ago
Bacillus anthracis has traditionally been considered the etiologic agent of anthrax. However, anthrax-like illness has been documented in welders and other metal workers infected with Bacillus cereus group spp. harboring pXO1 virulence genes that produce anthrax toxins. We present 2 recent cases of severe pneumonia in welders with B. cereus group infections and discuss potential risk factors for infection and treatment options, including antitoxin.
Katherine Hendricks

Citywide wastewater SARS-CoV-2 levels strongly correlated with multiple disease surveillance indicators and outcomes over three COVID-19 waves

4 months 1 week ago
Public health surveillance systems for COVID-19 are multifaceted and include multiple indicators reflective of different aspects of the burden and spread of the disease in a community. With the emergence of wastewater disease surveillance as a powerful tool to track infection dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, there is a need to integrate and validate wastewater information with existing disease surveillance systems and demonstrate how it can be used as a routine surveillance tool. A first step toward...
Loren Hopkins

Pregnancy and infant outcomes by trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy-SET-NET, 22 jurisdictions, January 25, 2020-December 31, 2020

5 months ago
CONCLUSIONS: There were no signals for increased birth defects among infants in this population relative to national baseline estimates, regardless of timing of infection. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in our analysis was higher relative to national baseline data (10.0-10.2%), particularly among people with third trimester infection. Consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy support recommended COVID-19 prevention strategies, including...
Varsha Neelam

QuaID: Enabling Earlier Detection of Recently Emerged SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern in Wastewater

6 months 1 week ago
As clinical testing declines, wastewater monitoring can provide crucial surveillance on the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) in communities. Multiple recent studies support that wastewater-based SARS-CoV-2 detection of circulating VoC can precede clinical cases by up to two weeks. Furthermore, wastewater based epidemiology enables wide population-based screening and study of viral evolutionary dynamics. However, highly sensitive detection of emerging variants remains a complex...
Nicolae Sapoval

Epidemiologic Investigation of Two Welder's Anthrax Cases Caused by <em>Bacillus Cereus</em> Group Bacteria: Occupational Link Established by Environmental Detection

6 months 1 week ago
Abstract Bacillus cereus group bacteria containing the anthrax toxin genes can cause fatal anthrax pneumonia in welders. Two welder's anthrax cases identified in 2020 were investigated to determine the source of each patient's exposure. Environmental sampling was performed at locations where each patient had recent exposure to soil and dust. Samples were tested for the anthrax toxin genes by real-time PCR, and culture was performed on positive samples to identify whether any environmental...
Patrick Dawson

Awareness of human papillomavirus and reported human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in a high-risk population

7 months 2 weeks ago
CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of HPV vaccination in this high-risk population was low and there was a lack of preventive care utilization. Further research is needed on how to effectively target these populations to not only increase vaccine uptake, but to mitigate barriers that contribute to low awareness and suboptimal vaccination uptake in high-risk heterosexual populations.
Trisha L Amboree

Trends in the Incidence of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers by County-Level Income and Smoking Prevalence in the United States, 2000-2018

8 months 2 weeks ago
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer burden is rising in the United States. Trends in the incidence by county-level income and smoking prevalence remain undescribed. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 21 database to ascertain HPV-associated cancers during 2000-2018. Trends were estimated by county-level income and smoking prevalence quartiles. Anal and vulvar cancer incidence among women and anal cancer incidence among men increased markedly in the lowest-income...
Yueh-Yun Lin
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