Trends of Cardiovascular Interventions Stratified by Body Mass Index: An Analysis of the 2016-2020 Nationwide Inpatient Sample Population

2 days 6 hours ago
Background There is a scarcity of studies delineating the trends of cardiovascular interventions in the hospitalized population stratified by body mass index (BMI). Our study aimed to study the burden of cardiovascular interventions and outcomes by BMI. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database between January 2016 and December 2020. We identified the population of interest using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) code....
Endurance O Evbayekha

Enabling accurate and early detection of recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in wastewater

3 weeks ago
As clinical testing declines, wastewater monitoring can provide crucial surveillance on the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variant of concerns (VoCs) in communities. In this paper we present QuaID, a novel bioinformatics tool for VoC detection based on quasi-unique mutations. The benefits of QuaID are three-fold: (i) provides up to 3-week earlier VoC detection, (ii) accurate VoC detection (>95% precision on simulated benchmarks), and (iii) leverages all mutational signatures (including insertions &...
Nicolae Sapoval

Pediatric diarrhea patients living in urban areas have a higher incidence of Clostridioides difficile infection

2 months 2 weeks ago
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and an unappreciated contributor to child mortality in low- and middle-income countries where the diagnosis may be difficult. There is little information about the prevalence of CDI among infants, children, and adolescents in Africa. Using a cross-sectional design, seventy-six samples were collected from pediatric patients presenting with diarrhea, including infants (≤ 2 years old), children (2-12 years),...
Ayodele T Adesoji

Exploring COVID-19 Vaccine Attitudes among Racially and Ethnically Minoritized Communities: Community Partners' and Residents' Perspectives

3 months 1 week ago
COVID-19 has disproportionately affected Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) communities, yet rates of COVID-19 vaccination remain low among these groups. A qualitative study was undertaken to better understand the factors contributing to low vaccine acceptance among these communities. Seventeen focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish from 8/21 to 9/22, with representatives from five critical community sectors: (1) public health departments (n = 1); (2) Federally Qualified...
Isabel Martinez Leal

Predictors of HIV Molecular Cluster Membership and Implications for Partner Services

3 months 3 weeks ago
Public health surveillance data used in HIV molecular cluster analyses lack contextual information that is available from partner services (PS) data. Integrating these data sources in retrospective analyses can enrich understanding of the risk profile of people in clusters. In this study, HIV molecular clusters were identified and matched to information on partners and other information gleaned at the time of diagnosis, including coinfection with syphilis. We aimed to produce a more complete...
Camden J Hallmark

Wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in preK-12 schools shows school, community, and citywide infections

4 months 1 week ago
Wastewater surveillance is a passive and efficient way to monitor the spread of infectious diseases in large populations and high transmission areas such as preK-12 schools. Infections caused by respiratory viruses in school-aged children are likely underreported, particularly because many children may be asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. Wastewater monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 has been studied extensively and primarily by sampling at centralized wastewater treatment plants, and there are limited...
Madeline Wolken

Expanding Medicaid to Reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in Houston, Texas: Insights From a Modeling Study

5 months 4 weeks ago
CONTEXT: Medicaid expansion has been nationally shown to improve engagement in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention continua, which are vital steps to stopping the HIV epidemic. New HIV infections in the United States are disproportionately concentrated among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Houston, TX, is the most populous city in the Southern United States with a racially/ethnically diverse population that is located in 1 of 11 US states that have not...
Francis Lee

"Everything…Fell Apart Once COVID-19 Hit"-Leveraging the COVID-19 Response to Strengthen Public Health Activities toward Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Qualitative Study

6 months 1 week ago
COVID-19 caused widespread disruption of activities for Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE). In this study we assessed public health perspectives on leveraging the COVID-19 response to advance the goals of EHE. We conducted a qualitative study with 33 public health partners in the Midwestern and Southern United States from October 2020 to February 2022. Participants were asked how the strategies developed for COVID-19 could be applied to the HIV epidemic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and...
Samantha A Devlin

Clinical Outcomes Associated with Co-infection of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales and other Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

6 months 2 weeks ago
CONCLUSION: The results show that CRPA and CRE co-infections have synergistic effects on clinical outcomes. Further investigation is necessary to understand the mechanism. Screening high risk patients for concomitant antimicrobial-resistant infections may have a significant clinical impact, including effective therapies, antibiotic stewardship, and infection control policies.
Bekana K Tadese

Impact of molecular sequence data completeness on HIV cluster detection and a network science approach to enhance detection

6 months 3 weeks ago
Detection of viral transmission clusters using molecular epidemiology is critical to the response pillar of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative. Here, we studied whether inference with an incomplete dataset would influence the accuracy of the reconstructed molecular transmission network. We analyzed viral sequence data available from ~ 13,000 individuals with diagnosed HIV (2012-2019) from Houston Health Department surveillance data with 53% completeness (n = 6852 individuals with sequences)....
Sepideh Mazrouee

Six-Month Outcomes of Infants Born to People With SARS-CoV-2 in Pregnancy

7 months ago
CONCLUSIONS: Results are reassuring, with low incidences of most health outcomes examined. Incidence of infant SARS-CoV-2, breastmilk feeding initiation, and all-cause mortality differed by timing of maternal infection. Strategies to prevent infections and support pregnant people with coronavirus disease 2019 may improve infant outcomes.
Lucas Gosdin

Sexual Behaviors and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a Heterosexually Active Adult Population at Increased Risk for HIV Infection

7 months 2 weeks ago
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually acquired infection in the US. Vaccination is effective against infection with high-risk HPV strains, yet HPV vaccine coverage is lower in the US than the national target. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sexual behaviors and HPV vaccination in a heterosexually active population at increased risk for HIV infection. Data from 380 participants aged 18-45 years obtained from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system...
Trisha L Amboree

Welder's Anthrax: A Tale of 2 Cases

7 months 3 weeks ago
Bacillus anthracis has traditionally been considered the etiologic agent of anthrax. However, anthrax-like illness has been documented in welders and other metal workers infected with Bacillus cereus group spp. harboring pXO1 virulence genes that produce anthrax toxins. We present 2 recent cases of severe pneumonia in welders with B. cereus group infections and discuss potential risk factors for infection and treatment options, including antitoxin.
Katherine Hendricks

Citywide wastewater SARS-CoV-2 levels strongly correlated with multiple disease surveillance indicators and outcomes over three COVID-19 waves

8 months 1 week ago
Public health surveillance systems for COVID-19 are multifaceted and include multiple indicators reflective of different aspects of the burden and spread of the disease in a community. With the emergence of wastewater disease surveillance as a powerful tool to track infection dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, there is a need to integrate and validate wastewater information with existing disease surveillance systems and demonstrate how it can be used as a routine surveillance tool. A first step toward...
Loren Hopkins

Pregnancy and infant outcomes by trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy-SET-NET, 22 jurisdictions, January 25, 2020-December 31, 2020

9 months ago
CONCLUSIONS: There were no signals for increased birth defects among infants in this population relative to national baseline estimates, regardless of timing of infection. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in our analysis was higher relative to national baseline data (10.0-10.2%), particularly among people with third trimester infection. Consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy support recommended COVID-19 prevention strategies, including...
Varsha Neelam
2 hours 21 minutes ago
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